Files of check-in [69f9981b49] in the top-level directory
Getting Started with the PiDP-8/I Software
A Raspberry Pi with the 40-pin GPIO connector. That rules out the first-generation Raspberry Pi model A and B boards which had a 26-pin GPIO connector.
An SD card containing a compatible OS.
This software distribution, unpacked somewhere convenient within the filesystem on the Raspberry Pi.
We recommend that you unpack it somewhere your user has read/write access like
$HOME/src/pidp8i. Since it installs as a system service, you might prefer
/opt/src, though you'll have to adjust permissions for that.
The old stable 2015.12.15 release required that you unpack the software into
/opt/pidp8, but we now neither require nor recommend that.
We require several tools and libraries that aren't always installed:
- A working C compiler and other standard Linux build tools,
To install all of this on a Raspbian type OS, say:
$ sudo apt update $ sudo apt install build-essential $ sudo apt install libncurses-dev python-pip $ sudo pip install pexpect
- A working C compiler and other standard Linux build tools, such as
Getting the Software onto Your Pi
If you're reading this file within an unpacked distribution of the PiDP-8/I software, you should skip this section, because you have already achieved its aim.
If you are reading this online and have not yet downloaded and unpacked the software source code onto your Pi, this section will get you going.
Transferring the File to the Pi
The first step is to get the tarball (
*.tar.gz file) or Zip file onto
the Pi. There are many options:
Copy the file to the SD card you're using to boot the Pi. When inserted into a Mac or Windows PC, typically only the
/bootpartition mounts as a drive your OS can see. (There's a much larger partition on the SD card, but most PCs cannot see it.) There should be enough free space left in this small partition to copy the file over. When you boot the Pi up with that SD card, you will find the tarball or Zip file in
Pull the file down to the Pi over the web, directly to the Pi:
$ wget -O pidp8i.tar.gz https://goo.gl/JowPoC
That will get you a file called
pidp8i.tar.gzin the current working directory containing the latest release version. (Use the "bleeding edge" links on the home page if you want the tip of trunk instead!)
SCP the file over to a running Pi from another machine. If your Pi has OpenSSH installed and running, you can use WinSCP, Cyberduck, FileZilla or another SCP or SFTP-compatible file transfer program to copy the file to the Pi over the network.
Clone the Fossil repository using the instructions in the
HACKERS.mdfile. (Best for experts or those who wish to become experts.)
Switch to the binary OS installation images available from the top-level project page. These are default installations of Raspbian Lite with the PiDP-8/I software already downloaded, built, and installed. These images were produced in part using option #4 above, so you can use Fossil to update your software to the current version at any time, as long as the Pi is connected to the Internet.
Unpacking the Software on Your Pi
Having transferred the distribution file onto your Pi, you can unpack it with one of the two following commands.
If you grabbed the tarball:
$ tar xvf /path/to/pidp8i-VERSION.tar.gz
If you grabbed the Zip file instead:
$ unzip /path/to/pidp8i-VERSION.zip
The file name will vary somewhat, depending on when and how you
transferred the file. After unpacking it, you will have a new
directory beginning with
cd into that directory, then
proceed with the configuration steps below.
If You Need More Help
If the above material is not sufficient to get you started, you might want to look at the documentation provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. In particular, we recommend their Linux and Raspbian guides. The book "Make: Linux for Makers" by Aaron Newcomb is also supposed to be good.
Configuring, Building and Installing
This software distribution builds and installs in the same way as most other Linux/Unix software these days. The short-and-sweet is:
$ ./configure && make && sudo make install
configure step is generally needed only the first time you build
the software in a new directory. You may want to add options after it,
as described below.
After that initial configuration, the software normally auto-reconfigures itself on updates using the same options you gave before, but occasionally we make some change that prevents this from happening. If you get a build error after updating to a new version of the software, try saying:
$ make reconfig
...and then continuing with the
make && sudo make install steps before
reporting a build error.
make reconfig also fails, you can try running the
script again manually.
Running the Software
For the most part, this is covered in the documentation linked from the Learning More section of the project home page.
The only tricky bit is that if this is the first time you have
configured, built and installed the software as above on a given system,
you will have to log out and back in before commands like
be in your user's
Configure Script Options
You can change many things about the way the software is built and
installed by giving options to the
Perhaps the most widely useful
configure script option is
which lets you override the default installation directory,
There are many good reasons to change where the software gets installed,
but the default is also a good one, so unless you know for a fact that
you want to change this default, leave it alone.
For example, you might prefer that the installer put the built software under your home directory. This will do that:
$ ./configure --prefix=$HOME/pidp8i && sudo make install
You might think that installing to a directory your user has complete
control over would remove the need for installing via
sudo, but that
is not the case, since the installation script needs root privileges to
mark a few of the executables as having permission to run at high priority
levels, which improves the quality of the display, particularly with the
incandescent lamp simulator feature enabled.
The American Standards Association (predecessor to ANSI) delivered the second major version of the ASCII character encoding standard the same year the first PDP-8 came out, 1965. The big new addition? Lowercase.
That bit of history means that when the PDP-8 was new, lowercase was a fancy new feature in the computing industry. That, plus the memory savings you get from storing stripped ASCII as two 6-bit characters per 12-bit PDP-8 word means that most PDP-8 software did not expect to receive lowercase ASCII text, particularly the older software.
The PDP-8 lived long enough to see lowercase ASCII input become common in the computing industry.
As a result, PDP-8 software reacts in many strange and wonderful ways when you give it lowercase input. Some software copes nicely, other software crashes, and some software just sits there dumbly waiting for you to type something!
This configuration option lets you control how you want your simulated PDP-8/I to react to lowercase input:
auto — The default is for the software to attempt to "do the right thing." The simulator is configured to send lowercase input to the PDP-8 software running on it. Where we have the skill, will, need, and time for it, we have patched some of the software we distribute that otherwise would not do the right thing with lowercase input to make it do so.
This is not the option you want if you are a purist.
upper — This option tells the PDP-8 simulator to turn lowercase input into upper case. This is the behavior we used for all versions of the PiDP-8/I software up through v2017.04.04. Essentially, it tells the software that you want it to behave as through you've got it connected to a Teletype Model 33 ASR.
The advantage of this mode is that you will have no problems running PDP-8 software that does not understand lowercase ASCII text.
The disadvantage is obvious: you won't be able to input lowercase ASCII text. The SIMH option we enable in this mode is bidirectional, so that if you run a program that does emit lowercase ASCII text — such as Rick Murphy's version of Adventure — it will be uppercased, just like an ASR-33 would do.
Another trap here is that the C programming language requires lowercase text, so you will get a warning if you leave the default option --enable-os8-cc8 set. Pass --disable-os8-cc8 when enabling upper mode.
none — This passes 7-bit ASCII text through to the software running on the simulator unchanged, and no patches are applied to the PDP-8 software we distribute.
This is the option for historical purists. If you run into trouble getting the software to work as you expect when built in this mode, try enabling CAPS LOCK.
If you build the software on a multi-core host, the PDP-8/I simulator is normally built with the incandescent lamp simulator feature, which drives the LEDs in a way that mimics the incandescent lamps used in the original PDP-8/I. (We call this the ILS for short.) This feature currently takes too much CPU power to run on anything but a multi-core Raspberry Pi, currently limited to the Pi 2 and Pi 3 series.
If you configure the software on a single-core Pi — models A+, B+, and Zero — the simulator uses the original low-CPU-usage LED driving method instead. (a.k.a. NLS for short, named after this configuration option.)
Those on a multi-core host who want this low-CPU-usage LED driving
method can give the
--no-lamp-simulator option to
method not only uses less CPU, which may be helpful if you're trying to
run a lot of background tasks on your Pi 2 or Pi 3, it can also be
helpful when the CPU is heavily throttled.
If you have done Oscar's serial mod to your PiDP-8/I PCB and the
Raspberry Pi you have connected to it, add
--serial-mod to the
configure command above.
If you do not give this flag at
configure time with these hardware
modifications in place, the front panel will not work correctly, and
trying to run the software may even crash the Pi.
If you give this flag and your PCBs are not modified, most of the hardware will work correctly, but several lights and switches will not work correctly.
This flag is for an alternative serial mod by James L-W. It doesn't require mods to the Pi, and the mods to the PiDP-8/I board are different from Oscar's. This flag changes the GPIO code to work with these modifications to the PiDP-8/I circuit design.
See the linked mailing list thread for details.
--serial-mod, you should only enable this flag if you have
actually done the mods as specified by James L-W.
This option is a pure alternative to
can leave both off, but you cannot pass both.
README-throttle.md for the values this option takes. If
you don't give this option, the simulator runs as fast as possible, more
When you install the software on a systemd-based Linux
system, we normally configure the OS to automatically mount USB drives
when they are initially plugged in, which allows the
media image auto-attach feature to work smoothly. That is, if you plug
in a USB memory stick holding a
*.pt file containing a paper tape
image, you want the simulator to be able to find it if you have the DF
switches set to 1, telling the PiDP-8/I front panel code to look for
something to attach to the simulator's paper tape reader.
This feature may interfere with other uses of USB, such as when booting your Pi from an external USB hard disk drive. Give this option to disable the feature.
(Alternately, you could modify our
bin/usb-mount scripts so that they work cooperatively with your local
USB setup rather than conflicting with it.)
Give this option if you do not want to build Ian Schofield's
cross-compiler on the host.
Because the cross-compiler is needed to build the CC8 native OS/8
compiler, disabling the cross-compiler also causes the native compiler
to be left off the bootable OS/8 RK05 disk image, as if you’d passed the
--disable-os8-cc8 configuration option.
Several default components of the OS/8 RK05 disk image used by boot options IF=0 and IF=7 can be left out to save space and build time:
--disable-os8-advent — Leave out the Adventure game.
--disable-os8-ba - Leave out the BASIC games and demos which come from DEC's book "101 BASIC Computer Games." These are normally installed to
*.BA, thus the option's name.
(We considered naming it
--disable-os8-basic-games-and-demos, but that's too long, and it can't be
--disable-os8-basicbecause that implies that it is the OS/8 BASIC subsystem that is being left out, which is not even currently an option.)
--disable-os8-cc8 - Leave out Ian Schofield's native OS/8 CC8 compiler and all of its ancillary files.
--disable-os8-chess — Leave out John Comeau's CHECKMO-II chess implementation.
--disable-os8-crt — Suppress the console rubout behavior enabled while building the OS/8 binary RK05 disk image. You probably only want to do this if you have attached a real teletype to your PiDP-8/I, and thus do not want video terminal style rubout processing.
--disable-os8-dcp — Leave out the DCP disassembler.
--disable-os8-focal - Do not install any version of FOCAL on the OS/8 system disk. This option sets
--enable-os8-focal69, both discussed below.
--disable-os8-fortran-ii - Leaves out the FORTRAN II compiler, SABR, the linking loader (
LIBSETtool, and the
*.RLlibrary files. This option is ignored unless you also give
--disable-os8-cc8because the OS/8 version of CC8 is built atop this subsystem.
--disable-os8-fortran-iv - Leave the FORTRAN IV compiler out.
--disable-os8-init - Do not install
RKB0:INIT.TXor its “show on boot” script,
INIT.CM. Rather than disable the default on-boot init message, you may want to edit
media/os8/init.tx.into taste and rebuild.
--disable-os8-k12 - Leave out the Kermit-12 implementation normally installed to
--disable-os8-macrel - Leave the MACREL v2 assembler and its associated FUTIL V8B tool out.
--disable-os8-src - Do not build the
v3d-src.rk05disk image from the OS/8 source tapes. This is not controlled by
--os8-minimalbecause that only affects the bootable disk images.
--disable-os8-uwfocal - Leave out the U/W FOCAL V4E programming environment normally installed to
Note that the default installation only installs
UWF16K.SV, not the rest of the files on
media/os8/subsys/uwfocal*.tu56. There is much more to explore here, but we cannot include it in the default installation set because that would overrun OS/8's limitation on the number of files on a volume.
There are a few file sets not normally installed to the OS/8 RK05 disk image used by boot options IF=0 and IF=7. You can install them with the following options:
--enable-os8-music — The
*.MUmusic scores and Rich Wilson's associated compiler (
MUSIC.PA) and player overlay (
PLAYOV.PA) are not normally installed to the built OS/8 binary RK05 disk image because the Raspberry Pi reportedly does not emit eufficient RFI at AM radio frequencies when running these programs to cause audible music on a typical AM radio, the very point of these demos. Until a way is found around this problem — what, low RFI is a problem now? — this option will default to "off".
--enable-os8-vtedit — This option installs a default-run macro pack called VTEDIT which causes the OS/8 version of TECO to run in full-screen mode and to react to several special keyboard commands not normally recognized by TECO.
This feature is disabled by default because the VTEDIT macro pack changes the way TECO operates, and many people want TECO to behave like TECO. VTEDIT was first created during the PDP-8's commercial lifetime, so enabling this option is not an anachronism, but TECO is much older and had a much more wide-reaching impact in history, so we choose to provide unvarnished TECO by default.
That having been said, people don't go to a ren fair and expect to experience the historical ubiquity of typhoid fever, so do not feel guilty if you choose to try this option.
--enable-os8-focal69 — Because the default installation includes U/W FOCAL, we have chosen to leave FOCAL 69 out by default to save space on the O/S 8 system disk. You can give this option to install this implementation alongside U/W FOCAL, or you can couple this option with
--disable-os8-uwfocalto reverse our choice of which FOCAL implementation to install by default.
You should know that the reason we made this choice is that the version of FOCAL 69 we are currently shipping is fairly minimal: we believe we are shipping the original DEC version of FOCAL 69 plus a few carefully-selected overlays. There are many more overlays and patches available on the Internet for FOCAL 69, but we have not had time to sort through these and make choices of which ones to ship or how to manage which ones get installed. Thus our choice: we want to provide the most functional version of FOCAL by default, and within the limitations of the time we have chosen to spend on this, that is U/W FOCAL today.
(See our U/W FOCAL manual supplement for a list of differences between these versions of FOCAL, which implicitly explains why we chose it.)
It is possible that we will eventually add enough patches and overlays to FOCAL 69 that it will become more powerful than U/W FOCAL, so we might then choose to switch the defaults, but that is just speculation at the time of this writing.
If you set this flag, it sets all
--enable-os8-* flags to false and
--disable-os8-* flags to true. If you give this along with any
--enable-os8-* option, minimal mode overrides it. Alas, the only way
to get "minimal plus one or two features" is to explicitly disable all
of the optional OS/8 features you don't want.
This flag's name is aspirational, rather than accurate: our current
"minimal" installation could still be stripped down some more. We
expect to add more
--disable-os8-* flags later to reduce the delta
between the ideal "minimal OS/8" and our current offering. These
options would then be included in
--os8-minimal. An example of this
is OS/8's BASIC interpreter, which currently cannot be left out.
This option does not control some things you might think it should:
This option does not affect the
--lowercaseoption because that affects only OS/8's command interpreter and OS/8's BASIC implementation, so we deem it to be orthogonal to the purpose of the
--os8-minimalflag, which only affects the optional post-
BUILDfeatures. If you want a truly pristime OS/8 disk, you should therefore also give
This option does not affect
--disable-os8-src, because it only suppresses optional features in the "bin" media. If you want a minimal OS/8 bin disk and no src disk, give that option as well.
Although it disables display of the
INIT.TXfile on boot, the file is still generated in case you later want to enable it, since the file acts as build documentation as well as a "welcome" message.
./configure --help for more information on your options here.
For the first several years of the PiDP-8/I project, the OS/8 RK05 disk
image included with the PiDP-8/I software (called
os8.rk05) was based
on an image of a real RK05 disk pack that someone allegedly found in a
salvaged PDP-8 system. Parts of the image were corrupt, and not all of
the pieces of software on the disk worked properly with the other parts.
It was also a reflection of the time it was created and used out in the
world, which was not always what we would wish to use today.
In late 2017 several of us created the
mkos8 tool, which was
replaced during 2018 by Bill Cattey with the
and its stock scripts. The
--*-os8-* options documented above get
os8-run during the PiDP-8/I software build process,
which controls how it generates the
v3d*.rk05 RK05 disk image files.
This set of disk images entirely replaces the old
image, in that all features of the old disk image are still available,
though not necessarily in the default configuration. In some cases,
features pesent on the old
os8.rk05 disk are now left out or disabled
by default, and in other cases we have changed the behavior of features
from the way they used to be on the old disk. Mostly, though, the
new disk images are simply more functional than the old ones.
The remainder of this section describes some aspects of these disk
images which are not clear from the descriptions of the
configuration options above.
The baseline for the bootable OS/8 disk images comes from a set of
DECtapes distributed by Digital Equipment Corporation which are now
included with the PiDP-8/I software; see the
files. From these files and your configuration options, the
os8-run script creates the baseline
v3d-dist.rk05 disk image.
The default build creates a complete OS/8 V3D system including
support, FORTRAN IV, MACREL v2, and more.
It turns out that it's pretty easy to run out of directory space on an OS/8 RK05 disk due to a limitation in the number of files on an OS/8 filesystem. For this reason, the archive of device drivers and TD8E system are left off the system packs. They can be found in OS/8 Binary Distribution DECtape #2.
If you do fancy work with
BUILD, you may need to attach that DECtape
image and copy files in from it.
The OS/8 RK05 disk image build process normally installs many software and data file sets to the disk image. See the option descriptions above: the "disable" option set effectively lists those packages that are installed by default, and the following set of "enable" option set lists those left out by default.
The default build enhances the console in a few ways:
The SIMH PDP-8 simulator and a few select parts of OS/8 are adjusted to cope with lowercase input to varying degrees.
Rubout/backspace handling is set to assume a video terminal rather than a teletype by default.
You can read more about this in the wiki.
v3d-dist.rk05 disk image referenced above is considered a
read-only master. A copy is made called
v3d.rk05. This is the
default OS/8 rk05 image assigned to the IF=0 and IF=7 boot options.
In keeping with the standards of good systm management this image incorporates all mandatory patches, as well as optional patches appropriate to proper operation of the system. For details on the available patches, the selection criteria, and information about other optional patches see the OS/8 system patches document.
As with the OS/8 disk image, this distribution’s build system
can create custom TU56 tape images from pristine source media. This
replaces the old
os8.tu56 binary image previously distributed with
The build system actually creates four such tape images according to a 2×2 matrix of choices:
--boot-tape-version — The default value is “
v3f”, meaning that the boot tape is based on OS/8 V3F. Give “
v3d” to boot from a OS/8 V3D tape instead. See the wiki article OS/8 V3D vs V3F for the implications of this choice.
--boot-tape-config — The default value is “
tc08”. Give “
td12k” to use a tape image configured with the TD12K DECtape controller driver built in. See the wiki article TC08 vs TD12K for the reason you’re given a choice here.
Overwriting the Local Simulator Setup
When you run
sudo make install step on a system that already has an
existing installation, it purposely does not overwrite two classes of
The binary PDP-8 media files, such as the RK05 disk image that holds the OS/8 image the simulator boots from by default. These media image files are considered "precious" because you may have modified the OS configuration or saved personal files to the disk the OS boots from, which in turn modifies this media image file out in the host operating environment.
The PDP-8 simulator configuration files, installed as
$prefix/share/boot/*.script, which may similarly have local changes, and thus be precious to you.
Sometimes this "protect the precious" behavior isn't what you want. (Gollum!) One common reason this may be the case is that you've damaged your local configuration and want to start over. Another common case is that the newer software you're installing contains changes that you want to reflect into your local configuration.
You have several options here:
If you just want to reflect the prior PDP-8 simulator configuration file changes into your local versions, you can hand-edit the installed simulator configuration scripts to match the changes in the newly-generated
boot/*.scriptfiles under the build directory.
If the change is to the binary PDP-8 media image files — including the generated OS/8 disk images — and you're unwilling to overwrite your existing ones wholesale, you'll have to mount both versions of the media image files under the PDP-8 simulator and copy the changes over by hand.
If your previously installed binary OS media images — e.g. the OS/8 RK05 disk image that the simulator boots from by default — are precious but the simulator configuration scripts aren't precious, you can just copy the generated
boot/*.scriptfiles from the build directory into the installation directory,
$prefix/share/boot. (See the
--prefixoption above for the meaning of
If neither your previously installed simulator configuration files nor the binary media images are precious, you can force the installation script to overwrite them both with a
sudo make mediainstallcommand after
sudo make install.
Beware that this is potentially destructive! If you've made changes to your PDP-8 operating systems or have saved files to your OS system disks, this option will overwrite those changes!
Testing Your PiDP-8/I Hardware
You can test your PiDP-8/I LED and switch functions with these commands:
$ pidp8i stop $ pidp8i-test
You may have to log out and back in before the second command will work,
since the installation script modifies your normal user's
first time you install onto a given system.
It is important to stop the PiDP-8/I simulator before running the test program, since both programs need exclusive access to the LEDs and switches on the front panel. After you are done testing, you can start the PiDP-8/I simulator back up with:
$ pidp8i start
See its documentation for more details.
Using the Software
The largest user-visible difference between the two software distributions is that many of the shell commands are different:
To start the simulator running in the background:
$ pidp8i start
This will happen automatically on reboot unless you disable the service, such as in order to run one of the various forks of Deeper Thought.
To attach the terminal you're working on to the simulator:
(Yes, it's the same base command as above. The
pidp8iscript uses its first argument to determine what you want it to do. Without arguments, this is what it does.)
To detach from the simulator's terminal interface while leaving the PiDP-8/I simulator running, type Ctrl-A d. You can re-attach to it later with a
To shut the simulator down while attached to its terminal interface, type Ctrl-E to pause the simulator, then at the
helpat that prompt to get some idea of what else you can do with the simulator command language, or read the SIMH Users' Guide.
To shut the simulator down from the Raspbian command line:
$ pidp8i stop
There are other major differences between the old stable distribution and this one. See that linked wiki article for details.
Enabling the SSH Server on the Binary OS Images
The OpenSSH server is enabled and running by default on the PiDP-8/I
binary OS images, but for security reasons, the build process we use
to create these OS images wipes out the SSH host keys generated here
on our build system, else everyone's PiDP-8/I would have the same
host keys, which would be a massive security hole. Unfortunately,
sshd service is not smart enough to regenerate these
keys if they are missing on boot, so you need to do this once by hand:
$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server
You should be able to log in via SSH immediately after that command completes.
We used to do this automatically in releases v2017.12.22 and before,
but that was when we started the
pidp8i service as root, which we no
longer do. Consequently, the
pidp8i service no longer has permission
to generate your OS's SSH keys, so you must do it interactively with
The systemd Unit File
The PiDP-8/I software version 2017.12.22 used an old-style System V init script to start the PiDP-8/I service, as did all prior releases, including Oscar Vermeulen's final stable release.
As of 2018.02.22, we have now switched to a systemd unit file, since we normally install on Raspbian, which has been systemd-based for years. We've wanted to do this for some time, but some changes in the way systemd handles SysV init script compatibility in Raspbian Stretch forced the issue.
One of the features systemd gives us is the ability to set the unit
to run as user-level service rather than as a system-wide service,
which means you no longer need the
sudo prefix on commands to start,
stop, restart, and query the service. The only time you now need root
privileges is when installing the software. After that, the software
runs under your normal user account, as do all of the commands you
use to manipulate the background simulator service.
As a result of these changes, none of these commands work any longer:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/pidp8i start $ sudo service pidp8i stop $ sudo systemctl restart pidp8i
The correct forms, respectively, are:
$ systemctl --user start pidp8i $ systemctl --user stop pidp8i $ systemctl --user restart pidp8i
These commands are long, so we have extended the
pidp8i command to
build and run
systemctl commands for you when you pass it arguments:
$ pidp8i start $ pidp8i stop $ pidp8i restart $ pidp8i status -l
If you run it without arguments, it attaches to the GNU screen(1) session, just as before.
The last command above shows that all arguments are passed to
systemctl, not just the first, so you can pass flags and such.
The service is still set to start at boot, just as before.
To disable the service so you can run something else against the PiDP-8/I front panel hardware instead, such as Deeper Thought 2:
$ pidp8i stop $ pidp8i disable
If you install this release on a system that has the old SysV init script on it, that service will be disabled and removed before we install and enable the replacement systemd user service.
Copyright © 2016-2019 by Warren Young. This document is licensed under the terms of the SIMH license.